Coenzyme Q10 (Coq10) is a natural antioxidant substance found in every cell in our body.  CoQ10 is a vital participant in the chain of metabolic chemical reactions that generate energy within cells (in the form of ATP).  It also functions as an antioxidant, protecting our cells from free radicals and oxidative damage.
How it works

  • The classic biochemical role of CoQ10 is its integral role in energy (ATP) production within the inner membrane of mitochon­dria. There, it transfers electrons as part of the respiratory electron transport chain, a process that is vital for the production of energy from our food (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). Dysfunction of the respiratory chain has been associated with a range of pathological disorders of any tissue and at any age.   
  • CoQ10 is also an antioxidant which neutralizes free radicals and inhibits cellular apoptosis. It can act as a free-radical scavenger, protecting cell membranes and other cell components – including DNA - from oxidative damages.
  • CoQ10 has an important role in regulating genes which in turn control energy production and other important functions in the cell.  

What is CoQ10 used for?

Parkinson’s Disease
Oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson disease. Studies have indicated that CoQ10 can protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and high doses (1200 mg daily) of CoQ10 for 16 months appeared to slow progression of the disease. Arch Neurol.2002;59(10):1541-50/ Pharmaceuticals 2009;2:134-49/Neurosci Lett.2010;469(1):159-63.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
ALS is a progressive disease causing degeneration of motor neurons. Treatment with high dosages of CoQ10 (at least 400 mg daily) resulted in symptoms improve and slowing of the disease progression. Open Nutraceuticals J.2012;5:187-92

Down Syndrome
Structural changes and abnormal function of mitochondria have been documented in Down's syndrome (DS) cells, patients, and animal models. DS cells exhibit a wide array of functional mitochondrial abnormalities including reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, reduced ATP production, and decreased oxido-reductase activity. The effect of CoQ10 was evidenced at single cell level. Results suggest that the effect of CoQ10 treatment in DS not only reflects antioxidant efficacy, but likely modulates DNA repair mechanisms. Biofactors. 2011;35(7):386-92/Neurobiol Aging.2012;33(3):626-28/Pediatr Neurol.2007;37(6):398-403.

Mitochondrial disease
Mitochondrial disease is a group of disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitochondrial dysfunction disrupts the activity of cells, tissues and organs and underlies a wide range of pathologies and diseases.  CoQ10 has been reported to have a beneficial effect on clinical outcome and biochemical measures in a variety of mitochondrial disorders. Daily administration of CoQ10 5-30 mg/kg increases CoQ10 plasma levels and reduces oxidative stress. Long term treatment (>6 months) may reduce the symptoms of patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders and myoencephalopathies. The positive effects have included a reduction of serum lactate and pyruvate, improvement in cardiac conduction defects and eye movements, reduced muscle weakness, improved exercise tolerance and oxygen utilization, decreased peripheral nerve damage, improvement in neurological function and increased respiratory chain activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 May 24;1271(1):281-6/Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2009; 11(6):414-30/JADA. 2003;103:1029-38/ Mol Genet Metab. 2010; 99: 246–55/MolSyndromol.2014;5(3-4):141-6

Chronic heart failure
Heart failure impairs the ability of the heart to maintain its normal cardiac output. There is evidence that chronic heart failure may be associated with oxidative stress and CoQ10 deficiency. Clinical studies had found that CoQ10 administration, as adjunctive treatment, may improve symptoms, increase functional capacity and endothelial function, decrease mortality and reduce major adverse cardiovascular events. Eur Heart J.2006 Nov;27(22):2675-81 Biofactors 2008;32:119–28/ Atherosclerosis. 2011;216:395–401/ Int J Cardiol. 2013 Sep 1;167(5):1860-6/ JACC Heart Fail. 2014 Dec;2(6):641-9

Migraine
Mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired oxygen metabolism may play a role in migraine pathogenesis. It has been also found that migraine may be associated with lower CoQ10 levels (35% of 1,550 patients).  CoQ10 supplementation (300 mg/day) significantly decreased attack frequency, headache days and days with nausea. CoQ10 supplementation may be particularly effective in the treatment of paediatric migraine. Cephalalgia. 2002 Mar;22(2):137-41/ Headache 2007 Jan; 47(1):73-80; /Neurology 2005 Feb 22; 64(4):713-5

Chronic fatigue syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis is a complex medical condition, characterized by long-term fatigue, muscle or join pain and disorders in inflammatory and oxidative pathways. CoQ10 may play a role in the pathophysiology of CFS and symptoms may be caused by CoQ10 depletion. Patients with CFS could benefit from CoQ10 supplementation in order to normalize low CoQ10 levels. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30(4):470-6.

Fibromyalgia
CoQ10 supplementation in a population of persons with fibromyalgia given 300mg daily for 3 months was able to reduce levels of lipid peroxidation and pro-oxidative markers in the serum. CoQ10 supplementation also reduced headaches and fatigue associated with fibromyalgia.PLoSOne.2012;7(4):e35677/RedoxRep.2013;18(1):12-9/Mitochondrion.2011Jul;11(4): 623-5/Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Oct 20;19(12):1356-61

In-vitro fertilization
According to recent experimental data, mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in age-related changes in the oocyte (i.e. the immature egg). CoQ10, as a mitochondrial nutrient, may be beneficial for improving the reproductive function in older women. In men, 300mg of CoQ10 over 56 weeks was able to reduce FSH and LH, and improve semen parameters such as motility and concentration when compared to baseline. Testosterone was increased to infertile men. AgingCellOctober 2015;14 (5): 887–95/ Fertility and sterility.2013;99(1):18-22/ J Urol. 2009 Jul;182(1):237-48

Dosage
Coenzyme Q10 dosage is determined by a medical specialist according the condition, the weight and age of the patient. Depending on the case, higher doses and long term treatment may be necessary to achieve and maintain results.

Safety
Coenzyme Q10  is a naturally occurring component present in all living cells. It has been widely used in medical practice for more than 40 years. Published data indicate that CoQ10 is highly safe and well tolerated even in high dosages. CoQ10 may reduce the body's response to the blood thinner (anticoagulant) medicine warfarin and may decrease insulin requirements in people with diabetes.